Independent Scientific Studies

This is a selection of independent studies by laboratories, universities, government institutions and users:

Physical Water Treatment - How it Works byDr. Ing. H. J├╝hnke

The devices cause that calcium hydrogen carbonate Ca(HCO3)2 turns out as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) which is electrically and chemically neutral in water. The CaCO3-crystals are special because they do not crystallize as sticky-structured crystals but form a smooth structure. Link


Physiological Institute:

University of Munich Germany

The system Vulcan 5000 was installed at the end of March 1996 in the coolant inflow of the crypton gasion laser Innova 90-K. During the test period the laser was in operation approx. 200 hours. On December 12th 1996 Coherent GmbH checked the laser tubes for lime deposits on the ceramic surface. No lime deposits were detected. Link


Steinbeis Institute:

Center for Environmental chemistry

The test showed that the tendency to form lime deposits is reduced considerably by the Vulcan 5000 water treatment. In addition, the effect continues for some days after Vulcan has been switched off. The effect is not only limited to a certain part of the pipe, but also passed into the water and to the whole piping system. Link


Cooling Tower Study - Ackuritlabs

During the time of the installation, the green biofilm had begun to recede and gradually disappear. The next visit was about 3 weeks after the installation. At that point, the green biofilm had been further reduced and the scale deposits had begun to separate from the flutes in coin-sized flakes. About a month after installation, the green biofilm had almost completely disappeared from the surfaces in contact with the Vulcan-treated water. Link

Scale Rust Ackuritlabs

User Study - Vulcan in Cooling Towers in Japan

After installation of the Vulcan unit, the statuses of the cooling towers A, B, and C were inspected without using any water treatment chemicals. Even after elapse of approximately six months, almost no scale buildups were observed inside the refrigerators and the heat exchanger tubes, and no water pollution warning was displayed. Link


User Study: Vulcan in Grease Traps, Japan

The treatment water is effective against rusts and scale on the primary side of the water supply pipe. When service water is used and drained on the secondary side, sliminess or clogging in the drain is reduced, preventing the build-up of metallic soaps in the grease trap. This results in the reduction of the problems of molds or stenches likely to accompany drainage. Link


User Study - Vulcan in Apartment Buildings in Tokyo

The visual examination of the following areas before and after the treatment with the Vulcan S25 (commercial unit) can easily be verified. These sanitary areas were taken as points of references: kitchen sink, low tank of bathroom/ toilet facility. Link